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This book addresses the involuntary and arbitrary displacement of individuals resulting from armed conflict and gross human rights violations. It shows that forcible displacement constitutes a serious violation of international law and of fundamental community interests.
Armed Conflict and Forcible Displacement provides a critical legal analysis of the contemporary international framework, permeating forcible displacement in these circumstances and explores the rights that individuals possess with specific focus on the right not to be displaced and, where this fails, the right to return home and to receive property restitution. In doing so, this volume marries together different fields of international law and builds on the case studies of Cyprus, Colombia, Cambodia and Syria. While the case studies considered here are far from exhaustive, they are either little explored or present significant challenges due to the magnitude of displacement or contested international jurisprudence.
Through this analysis, the volume exposes some of the legal challenges that individuals encounter in being protected from forcible displacement, as well as the legal obstacles that persist in ensuring the return of and the recovery of property by the displaced. It will be of interest to those interested in the fields of international law, human rights law, as well as conflict and war studies.
This book is a critical exploration of the war on terror from the prism of armed drones and globalization. It is particularly focused on the United States’ use of the drones, and the systemic dysfunctions that globalization has caused to international political economy and national security, creating backlash in which the desirability of globalization is not only increasingly questioned, but the resultant dissension about its desirability appears increasingly militating against the international consensus needed to fight the war on terror.
To underline the controversial nature of the “war on terror” and the pragmatic weapon (armed drones) fashioned for its prosecution, some of the elements of this controversy have been interrogated in this book. They include, amongst others, the doubt over whether the war should have been declared in the first place because terrorist attacks hardly meet the United Nations’ casus belli – an armed attack. There are critics, as highlighted in this book, who believe that the “war on terror” is not an armed conflict properly so called, and, thus, remains only a “law enforcement issue.”
The United States and all the states taking part in the war on terror are obligated to observe International Humanitarian Law (IHL). It is within this context of IHL that this book appraises the drone as a weapon of engagement, discussing such issues as “personality” and “signature” strikes as well as the implications of the deployment of spies as drone strikers rather than the Defence Department, the members of the U.S armed forces. This book will be of value to researchers, academics, policymakers, professionals, and students in the fields of security studies, terrorism, the law of armed conflict, international humanitarian law, and international politics.
The act of fighting or being a fighter has certain consequences in international law. The most obvious example can be found in international humanitarian law, where a distinction is drawn between fighters and civilians, with fighters being military objectives and civilians being protected from attack. Another example is from international human rights law, where it has been held that the particular characteristics of military life have to be taken into account when interpreting the human rights of members of state armed forces. This volume focuses on the field of international criminal law and asks the question: what relevance does fighting have to victimhood in international criminal law?
Among the topics which are explored are: how have international criminal courts and tribunals untangled lawful casualties of war from victims of war crimes? How have they determined who is a member of an organised armed group and who is not? What crimes can those who fight be victims of during hostilities? When does it become relevant in international criminal law that an alleged victim of a crime was a person hors de combat rather than a civilian? Can war crimes be committed against members of non-opposing forces? Can persons hors de combat be victims of crimes against humanity and genocide? What special considerations surround peacekeepers and child soldiers as victims of international crimes?
The author carries out an in-depth exploration of case law from international criminal courts and tribunals to assess how they have dealt with these questions. She concludes that the import of fighting upon victimhood in the context of international criminal law has not always been appreciated to the extent it should have been.
Most discourses on victims in international criminal justice take the subject of victims for granted, as an identity and category existing exogenously to the judicial process. This book takes a different approach. Through a close reading of the institutional practices of one particular court, it demonstrates how court practices produce the subjectivity of the victim, a subjectivity that is profoundly of law and endogenous to the enterprise of international criminal justice. Furthermore, by situating these figurations within the larger aspirations of the court, the book shows how victims have come to constitute and represent the link between international criminal law and the enterprise of transitional justice. The book takes as its primary example the Extraordinary Chambers in the Courts of Cambodia (ECCC), or the Khmer Rouge Tribunal as it is also called. Focusing on the representation of victims in crimes against humanity, victim participation and photographic images, the book engages with a range of debates and scholarship in law, feminist theory and cultural legal theory. Furthermore, by paying attention to a broader range of institutional practices, Figuring Victims makes an innovative scholarly contribution to the debates on the roles and purposes of international criminal justice.
international Practices of Criminal Justice: Social and Legal Perspectives examines the practitioners, practices, and institutions that are transforming the relationship between criminal justice and international governance. The book links two dimensions of international criminal justice, by analyzing the fields of international criminal law and international police cooperation. Although often thought of separately, each of these fields presents criminal justice as a governance method for resolving international challenges and crises. By focusing on examples from international criminal tribunals, transitional justice, transnational crime, and transnational policing and prosecution, the contributors to this collection all examine how criminal justice is unmoored from the state, while also attending to the struggles and challenges that emerge when criminal justice is used as a form of international action. International Practices of Criminal Justice: Social and Legal Perspectives breaks new ground in criminology, international legal studies and the sociology of law, and will be of interest to students, scholars, and practitioners across a wide array of fields in criminal justice, international law, and international governance.
This book offers a new way of understanding the role of the mediator in teaching parties the interrelationship between sustainable peace, forgiveness, and international justice. It argues that the arrival of social media presents new opportunities for reaching sustainable peace agreements, through their use in gathering the detailed information that can match victims and perpetrators of past atrocities.
The author aims to advance a more expansive understanding of the subjects and limitations of making peace in the shadow of international law by examining the concepts of mediation and forgiveness that exist alongside law. To that end, the book offers an account of the role of the mediator that emerges from the interplay between Ricouerian imagination and forgiveness and predicts ever-greater opportunities for making peace and protecting human rights that can be facilitated by a harnessing of social media as a tool for making peace with justice.
The author also aims to examine how strategies for sustaining the peace must combat the inevitable frustrations with democracy that can lead to a slide into dictatorship. Assad, Obama, and the UN leadership and their decisions concerning making and maintaining peace in Syria are used as case studies to examine the interplay between a leaders’ religious beliefs, faith in democracy and rule of law, and impulses towards totalitarianism.
International Law: Aspects of Regionalism evaluates regionalism in its various relationships and forms with respect to international law, as well as the importance and duties of international law in respect to the establishment and functioning of various forms of regional groups. A great deal of attention has been paid to regionalism from the global, political, ecocomic, security aspects, but a complex evaluation of the impact it has had on international law, and vice versa, is still lacking. The main purpose of this volume is to eliminate this gap and present the latest state of knowledge on the topic.
This text will be of interest both to students at an advanced level, academics, and reflective practitioners. It addresses the topics with regard to international law and regionalism and will be of interest to academics dealing with legal aspects of current regionalism and for the specialized courses in the faculties of law, as well as anyone studying diplomacy and international studies, international relations, regional integration law, EU law, international law, and international relations.
The book focuses on the experiences of Bosnian Serb women, where the collapse of the former Yugoslavia led to brutal war and gross human rights violations throughout the 1990s. Two decades after the war, women in Bosnia and Herzegovina are still facing the legacies of the violence in the 1990s. Through this case Simić argues that while all women survivors of rape face problems of stigma, shame and lack of political visibility, their legal and symbolic status differ according to their ethno-national identity.
Drawing on interviews with Bosnian Serb women survivors of rape in Bosnia and Herzegovina, feminist activists, local media, documentary and archival sources, the book examines ‘post-conflict justice’ as it is seen, lived and interpreted by women who belong to ‘perpetrator’ nations and will be of great interest and use to researchers, students and practitioners within post-conflict law and justice, international criminal law, security studies and gender studies.
Francis Lyall and Paul B. Larsen have been involved in teaching and researching space law for over 50 years. This new edition of their well-received text gathers together their knowledge and experience in readable form, and covers developments in all space applications, including space tourism, telecommunications, the ITU and finance. With an extensive citation of the literature, the discussion provides an excellent source for both students and practitioners.
On the 10th of October 2002 the International Court of Justice delivered the Bakassi decision, which, amongst other things, excised the resource rich land and maritime territory of Bakassi from Nigeria and transferred its legal title to Cameroon. These two countries under the auspices of the United Nations established the mechanism of the Cameroon-Nigeria Mixed Commission to honour and implement their obligations under the ICJ decision. Over a decade after the ICJ decision this volume brings together academics and practitioners to assess the impact of this decision and the challenges and issues that have been raised in the course of its implementation. Hailed by some as a model of preventive diplomacy and a blueprint for the future, this timely assessment illuminates the difficulties in imposing such controversial decisions and considers whether this type of Mixed Commission is an adequate mechanism for implementing them.
If Nigeria fails to prosecute the crimes recognised under the Rome Statute, then the International Criminal Court (ICC) will intervene. The ICC is only expected to complement the criminal justice system in Nigeria and is not a court of first instance, but one of last resort. This is what is known as the principle of complementarity. Before the ICC can step in, it must make a finding of ‘unwillingness’ or ‘inability’ on the part of Nigeria. It is only after this finding is made that the ICC can take over the prosecution of the crimes recognised under the Statute from Nigeria. This book examines the criminal justice process in Nigeria and discovers that the justice system is latent with the requirements of ‘unwillingness’ and ‘inability.’ The requirements, which serve as tests for assessment, are as they are laid down by the Rome Statute and interpreted by the ICC. This book offers recommendations as to what Nigeria must do in order to avoid the ICC intervention by reversing those parameters that give rise to ‘unwillingness’ and ‘inability.’
The International Criminal Court and Nigeria: Implementing the Complementarity Principle of the Rome Statute offers a contribution to the advancement of international law and will be of practical use to African countries. It aims to sensitise policy makers in different African countries in respect of policy options open to them to close impunity gap in their respective countries. This volume addresses the topics with regard to international criminal law and comparative public law and will be of interest to researchers, academics, organizations, and students in the fields of international law, governance, and comparative criminal justice.
The concept of human security has emerged in international relations and policy as an idea which not only seeks to relocate the focus of international society on the individual, but also challenges the current priorities of the international community. In particular it places emphasis on promoting and facilitating a nexus between security, development and human rights. It is potentially a paradigm in the making, gaining considerable momentum within the UN, international relations scholarship and regional bodies. And yet by-and-large it continues to be unexplored by the international legal community, despite the success of a number of international treaties being attributed to the discourse.
This book seeks to address this gap, and establish the nature of the relationship between human security discourse and international law, determining whether human security can meaningfully contribute to the international legal framework. To determine this, the book analyses the core principles of human security discourse and examines the degree to which they find parallels in the existing normative structure of international law. The book examines the how the broad-narrow debate that dominates human security discourse has played out in international law-making. It goes on to consider the processes for the creation of so called ‘human security’ treaties in order to determine a blueprint for future development of international human security treaty law. In concluding Shireen Daft sets out a structured principled approach through which international legal scholarship can engage with human security, highlighting the ways in which engagement between the two fields can be sustained.